To Touch the Moon

In honor of Neil Armstrong, we reflect upon the engineers of the 1960s in awe of their accomplishments.


On July 20th, 1969, at a mere 5 years old, I was given the special treat of staying up well past my bedtime to watch the blurry image of a man dressed in white with a enormous box strapped to his back walk down a short ladder on a world other than our own, and step into history. In my romantization of my childhood, this event, which I remember with great clarity, marks for me the beginning of my fascination with astronomy in particular, and science in general.

Within a year, my parents had granted my wish for a telescope, and over the next several years my incessant quest for understanding the many objects even this small imperfect instrument brought to my eye led me steadily to my career as a physicist and mathematician.

News came this weekend that Neil Armstrong, that man in the blurry image stepping on to the Sea of Tranquility of the Moon, has died at age 82. The story of Neil Armstrong is the story of a true American hero, which will be written by countless pens this week in his memory. I would like to take a few moments to reflect on the importance of the successful multiyear mission to reach the Moon, and the culture and philosophy of the men who achieved this incredible accomplishment in a mere 8 years of effort.

On April 21, 1961, Americans were shocked by the news that the Soviet Union had succeeded in launching Yuri Gagarin into orbit about Earth. In response, President Kennedy, in May of that year, put forth his challenge that America should place a man on the moon (and return him safely to Earth) before the end of the decade. The challenge was enthusiastically accepted by a massive team of engineers working throughout American industry and the Government.

From 1961 through 1969, in a mere 8 years, American industry developed manned spaceflight. The six Mercury missions launched one man at a time into orbit, starting in 1961, ending in 1963. The ten Gemini missions, all launched between 1965 and 1966, with two astronauts in each spacecraft, practiced the techniques and studied the effects of prolonged spaceflight. Finally, the 11 Apollo missions accomplished the goal of reaching the moon 9 times, with 6 landings bringing 12 men to the surface of another world.

What is truly amazing to me, as an engineer, is the pace of the development of human spaceflight. Each mission involved facing the unknown, dramatically  expanding our understanding of the mechanics, environments, and biological effects of spaceflight. The ability to design, build, test, and successfully launch these increasingly complex spacecraft in a cycle time measured in months instead of years, or decades, was an astounding accomplishment, never again equaled in modern history.

The sheer magnitude of the effort involved in reaching into space to the moon cannot be realized without recalling the lack of technology that today we take for granted. There is more processing power in your wireless phone than there was in all of the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft combined! Computers were used on the ground for only the most complex calculations, and these were physically huge machines requiring specialized teams to run them, none of which was more
powerful than the laptops of today.

Every detail of the spacecraft, the tools used to build its parts, down to the bolts and fasteners holding it together were first drawn - by hand - and revised without the benefit of mice, screens and delete keys. Teams of artists were employed by most companies to paint depictions of the spacecraft, including scenes of the various phases of the mission. These paintings were not created for nostalgia or marketing, but to help the engineers visualize their creations before the first models were built.

Everyday calculations were performed by hand, or with slide rules. Memos and reports were written by hand, then reproduced on a typewriter and  mimeographed. Even schedules were pieces of art, often drawn by draftsmen to make them large enough to be legible. No CAD models, no ERP systems, no PCs on every desk, no email, lots and lots of paper. The inefficiency is almost unimaginable to today's office worker.

And yet, arguably the greatest human accomplishment was achieved in a mere 8 years! Yes, it was an expensive undertaking - about $150 billion in today's money, but compare this to the Afghanistan war ($530 billion over about the same time period), and the space program looks like a bargain!

I could, as I'm sure you can imagine, go on forever revelling in the  accomplishments of the space program in the 1960s, but let me leave you with one example that simply seems incredulous to my 21st century aerospace mind.

In the summer of 1968, no Apollo manned mission had flown - Apollo 7, which was an Earth orbit test flight of the command module that would eventually
host the crews on the lunar missions, was to launch in October. The next planned mission, Apollo 8, was to test the lunar landing module in Earth orbit; however, the company producing the first lunar lander was running late.

In August, NASA made a momentous decision to change the Apollo 8 mission from an Earth orbital test, to a flight to the moon itself and back! Apollo 8 launched only 4 months later, the first manned test flight of the Saturn V rocket (Apollo 7 had used the smaller Saturn IIB rocket), and the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth's orbit and head into interplanetary space.

Imagine the amount of effort required to re-design this mission! In modern engineering practice, this would have required at least a year of constant
effort, massive cost growth, scores of unplanned tests and unending hand wringing over the uncertainties. It would never be attempted unless a national emergency were at hand. In 1968, this was done because it could be done, and was launched three months ahead of schedule, placing the astronauts in orbit around the moon on Christmas Eve.

As we look back upon the history of the space program, in honor of Neil Armstrong and all that he personally accomplished, we should spend more than a moment trying to grasp the differences in culture and mentality that enabled these rapid advancements using what are now seen as primitive tools, when compared to today's pace of technological evolution. I will leave that, for tonight, as an exercise for the reader.

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hank jr September 05, 2012 at 01:12 PM
in other deep thought from the rightwing: http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/ticket/hank-williams-jr-obama-muslim-president-130155210--politics.html
Ken September 05, 2012 at 01:12 PM
I remember when I met Pete Conrad, the late Apollo 12 astronaut he had this to say about the moon landing. "They even had me fooled" Let's stick to reality when it comes to the moon landings. It was a dream realized to see men walk on the moon. Someone still believes the conspiracy theories about the moon landings? Did someone forget their meds?
Concerned Parent September 05, 2012 at 01:24 PM
I completely disagree. I agree that my view can easily be view as simplistic in the eyes of some, but it is realy foundational. We've lost that today with technology. Things have come too easily for people and their priorities have been misplaced. We've been inundated with political news for the last 10 years. We have a whole generation that has been exposed to this overabundance of propaganda since birth. We have the ablitity to be a self-sustaining country but have chosen to create a global economy. We helped make China a manufacturing powerhouse by relying on their imports to support our everyday lives. We've become a nation of white collar workers. People who feel they are above working in the trades. As if it is below them and when people from other countries come here and take those jobs, they rise up and complain. My father came to this country without a penny in his pocket, he worked his ass off with NO help. HE made his own future thru hard work and sacrifice, something that some people are not willing to do today. This is the problem. Politicizing this is ridiculous because it's become the norm in our society.
sock puppet September 05, 2012 at 02:41 PM
You didn't say anything, but the reason why the companies moved to Taiwan or any other company might move to a country with more lax environmental and labor regulations. hyperbolic version: Protecting the environment costs more ---> move to china-->pollute china-->nothing made in usa
sock puppet September 05, 2012 at 02:45 PM
The sock puppet supports what you want it to support. But at least its arguments have more merit to them than using over-used portmanteaus.
Tom Falconieri September 05, 2012 at 04:02 PM
@hank JR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cZo38FmmRI&feature=related
Tom Falconieri September 05, 2012 at 04:08 PM
Robert S clearly you are a member of the FLAT EARTH SOCIETY!!
MAC September 05, 2012 at 04:59 PM
Obama's failures are losing him the popular vote, as highlighted by the fact the convention has made a face-saving cancellation of the Bank of America Stadium venue for his Thursday speech. He is so unpopular now that they can't even find enough students and black church members to bus in from hundreds of miles away, to fill the stadium! People voted for him in 2008 in great part knowing next to nothing about him, except that it would be a historic good thing for Americans to be able to say they had elected a half-black man as POTUS. We used to have an 'aspirational' presidency, as exemplified in this poignant article about the marvelous accomplishments of our former space program. Pres. BHO downsized NASA to having a "mission" of "reaching out to the Muslim world." Now Americans are realizing that electing someone with no executive experience, who also wants to diminish and "downsize" ** America and the prosperity of its citizens rather than upholding our sovereignty and 'American Exceptionalism,' was a HUGE MISTAKE!!! ** See the movie "2016: Obama's America," or read one of Dinesh D'Souza's books about Obama to understand why Obama's ideology and goals are anti-American.
Mr D. September 05, 2012 at 05:07 PM
So, a 40% chance of thunderstorms over the next 2 days obviously have nothing to do with the change of venue? Obviously the Dems are following the Reps' leadership, altering their schedule because of rain...
brutus September 05, 2012 at 05:25 PM
Mr D, I would buy that if not for the DNC saying just yesterday that this event was going to happen rain or shine. clearly, they moved the event to a smaller venue because they had concerns other than weather.
sock puppet September 05, 2012 at 05:33 PM
Wow bringing up that bunch of dreck as evidence? Sheesh http://www.salon.com/2012/08/30/2016_dinesh_dsouzas_demented_anti_obama_crusade/ Read this to understand why D'Souza and the people who believe him are near delusional . . .
sock puppet September 05, 2012 at 05:35 PM
It is happening Rain or Shine. If it is raining, they were going to move it inside so it would still happen? What is so hard about that. Dumb down the educational system and you get stupid people that vote republican
Hermann Zwergel September 05, 2012 at 05:35 PM
pure rush limpbaugh racist regurgation rot.
Mr D. September 05, 2012 at 05:41 PM
One of my favorite Mythbusters episodes is the one where they debunked the moon-landings-were-fake conspiracy theories!
brutus September 05, 2012 at 05:53 PM
are you dense? no, the OUTDOOR event was going to be rain or shine. and where did I say I was a republican or voting republican? perhaps you should review your own dumbed-down education.
Walt September 05, 2012 at 06:29 PM
That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for this thread...
Robert S September 05, 2012 at 08:16 PM
No, the earth is certainly a globe. We have the hoax that America is a democracy & that democracy is beneficial, and the hoax that man evolved from monkeys. There are other major hoaxes fooling the public at large.
Yooper September 06, 2012 at 01:02 AM
Something not generally known is that the "helmets" (NASA has a much longer name) for the shuttle astronauts were produced by a small company in Milford. What amazed me was that this was the ONLY SOURCE in the world for these "helmets". If that company had a fire NASA would have needed years to develop a new source. As far as the pressure suits, they were designed with moveable joints at wrists, elbows, and shoulders. They had built in backpacks which were essentially climate controls (made by Hamilton Standard-prime contractor in Windsor Locks).
Robert S September 06, 2012 at 02:11 AM
I know, Yooper, I used to work at that place in Milford back in the 80's, and I helped build the helmets!
John W September 06, 2012 at 02:27 AM
As usual, liberals are incapable of making a point without a personal insult or name calling. Thanks once again sock puppet, Tom Aquinas, and Watts for showing how childlike liberals are when they cannot argue based on facts but instead repeat the hate from the left wing media. You guys, well not sure about sock or Watts but you know what I mean, really do give me at least one laugh a day, thanks! Can't wait for you illogical, unhinged response.
Will Wilkin September 06, 2012 at 03:31 AM
Re: Ed @9:24 am on Wednesday, September 5, 2012 "We've lost that today with technology...." I agree with you Ed on that entire post.
G September 06, 2012 at 03:41 AM
I don't think he's referring to your tin hat, Robert.
Will Wilkin September 06, 2012 at 04:16 AM
Sock Puppet, I had at first hoped you were going to bring something to this discussion but have been repeatedly disappointed. I specifically reported that the Amazon designers of the Kindle WANTED to make it in the USA, they unsuccessfully SEARCHED for production facilities capable of doing it, and furthermore that their partner company E-Ink FOLLOWED the Kindle to Taiwan because that was where the Kindle was being made. The E-Ink owners themselves didn't so much choose to offshore the company, only to take the handsome $215million buyout of the company which they had started up 12 years earlier to develop their electronic ink invention. Environmental policy was NOT a factor in the offshoring of that highly innovative company. You ignored or missed that explanation, and ASSumed the offshoring was to escape environmental regulation (no research on your part, just your bad reading of me).
Steven DeVaux September 06, 2012 at 04:18 AM
It's a value proposition, plain and simple.
Will Wilkin September 06, 2012 at 04:38 AM
The vast majority of engineers are not geniuses, though they may be smart.
Robert S September 10, 2012 at 12:10 AM
G, everyone here knows that Yooper was referring to NASA Astronaut helmets, including you and me.
G September 10, 2012 at 02:52 AM
Nothing gets by you, Robert S. A mind like a steel trap!
Abe September 10, 2012 at 03:38 AM
America can rise to the same great glory. We just need to work together and be led by people whose main goal is is to make America the best place to live for everyone who lives here. As for the sub-thread of the comments... Attacks on the Constitution? You mean laws that usurp the powers of Congress, violate the Bill of Rights, or dereliction of duty by the three branches of government? If you bother to read the Constitution, there is nothing about separation of church and state. Reading this: http://www.tgm.org/mythofseparation.html, is a good start. As for my first questions. Compare the Constitution and Bill of Rights to the "War Powers Act", N.D.A.A. and NAFTA. Dereliction of duty or outright corruption removed the Glass-Steagall Act. Sorry for the short list, it is getting late. Is the country done for yet? I don't think so, but it still can be lost so wake up! Hold politicians accountable for government of the people, by the people and for the people. BTW. Corporations are not people. The Supreme Court is 5/9ths corrupt.
Will Wilkin September 10, 2012 at 05:23 PM
Yes Abe, the Dems and Repubs alike shred our Constitution and export our future. A bipartisan plutocracy is ruining our country. 98% of voters cannot yet face the biggest truths about the ruin of our country because they care more about their "party" than the Constitution or national sovereignty or middle class jobs. If the people actually DID care about the Constitution, they would demand Obama be impeached (rather than subject, along with H. Clinton and J. Lieberman and the top national security staff, to the indefinite detention or assassination described in the NDAA2012 signed by Obama), because they are giving weapons and money and assistance on the ground to alQaida and other terrorists in Syria. If the people ACTUALLY cared about our Constitution than their "party," they would reject BOTH mainstream candidates as offering nothing but renunciation of the Constitution. No Romney condemnation of kill-lists and warrantless-indefinite-detentions-without-due-process because the Repubs also want such unConstitutional dictator powers. If the people actually cared about the economic freefall of our nation, they would renounce Obama and the Dems as 100% complicit with the Republicans to finish the export of every last middle class job that can be moved, to further enrich the owners of the corporations that are already booming and flush with cash, enjoying a renaissance of global manufacturing and funding both parties with $hundreds of millions$.
Will Wilkin September 10, 2012 at 05:24 PM
Yes Abe, continued... Obama's TPP will be the worst FTA of them all, extending the WTO treaty ideas that all of the US and state laws and regulations are subject to overturn by 3 WTO attorneys. 600 corporate reps are writing this deal in scret for Obama right now, keeping the details away from the media and even from Congress. But if we could keep all this in mind while returning to the author's original exhortation to consider the changes in our society since the Apollo Missions, we should recognize the next national goal worth uniting around would be a revival of American manufacturing and prosperity by converting to 100% US-made renewable energy technologies over, say, a 20 year period. Part of a transition from a military economy and militarized diplomacy to a transformed USA of civilian prosperity and leadership of the world by successful example. First we have to apply Constitutional restraints on a global corporate police state run wild, then pull back from the bipartisan project of US global military domination by raiding Social Security and printing dollars that will soon not be an international reserve currency....at which time our economic collapse will be historic and long.


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